Estudiar en la universidad aumenta el sueldo y la posibilidad de empleo

Las personas con estudios universitarios tienen más probabilidades de hallar empleo y ganan de promedio un 56 % más que quienes no los tienen, dijo hoy el director de Educación y Cualificaciones de la Organización para la Cooperación y el Desarrollo Económicos (OCDE), Andreas Schleicher.

Schleicher presentó en Londres el informe anual de la OCDE titulado Panorama de la educación 2017, que computa datos de 46 países, los 35 miembros del organismo, entre ellos España o el Reino Unido, más once asociados.

Según el experto, la educación universitaria es, a día de hoy, “altamente productiva”, si bien los estudiantes no siempre eligen las carreras más beneficiosas para su futuro.

“Los sistemas educativos deben explicar mejor a los jóvenes qué estudios ofrecen las mayores oportunidades para la vida”, declaró.

La OCDE, que también realiza cada tres años el Programa Internacional de Evaluación de Estudiantes (PISA), en el que lista su rendimiento por países, explica que los adultos universitarios tienen más probabilidades de encontrar trabajo tras una crisis económica y menos de contraer depresión.

En el informe anual, difundido hoy en varios territorios, se señala que un 23 % de los universitarios entre 25 y 64 años de los países estudiados tiene una licenciatura en derecho o empresariales, frente a un 5 % en ciencias naturales, un 17 % en ingeniería o construcción y un 4 % en tecnologías de la información y comunicación (TIC).

Sin embargo, las carreras con mejores perspectivas laborales son precisamente las del grupo conocido como STEM –ciencia, tecnología, ingeniería y matemáticas–, lo que refleja “las demandas de una sociedad cada vez más impulsada por la innovación”, apuntó Schleicher.

En particular, los profesionales en carreras de TIC, como informática o telecomunicaciones, tienen un nivel de empleo siete puntos porcentuales por encima que los graduados en humanidades y arte, periodismo o ciencias sociales, apunta el informe.

La OCDE, con sede en París, aplaude que un 43 % de los ciudadanos de 25 a 34 años de sus países tiene título universitario, comparado con un 26 % en el año 2000, y también ha subido el número de personas que acabó la educación secundaria.

Sin embargo, alerta de que “sigue siendo problemático” que uno de cada cuatro alumnos de secundaria no ha terminado sus estudios dos años después de la fecha oficial, y cuatro de cada cinco de ellos los abandona completamente.

“Esta es una pérdida crítica”, advierte la OCDE, que recuerda que la tasa de desempleo para personas de 25 a 34 años sin estudios de secundaria en los países miembros es de un 17 %, frente a un 9 % para los adultos que sí la completaron.

Según el organismo, las carreras universitarias aún presentan una gran disparidad de géneros y, si bien las mujeres dominan en sanidad y bienestar social, educación, periodismo o ciencias sociales, son minoría en ciencias naturales, matemáticas, ingeniería y TIC.

El nivel de inversión en todo el sistema educativo ha aumentado desde 2010 a un ritmo superior al de las matriculaciones, hasta una media en la OCDE de 10.759 dólares por año y alumno, si bien en la educación superior o terciaria solo un 70 % de los fondos son públicos, con cada vez más coste para los hogares.

Según señaló Schleicher, el Reino Unido es el país que más fondos destina a la educación, desde primaria a terciaria, si bien también tiene una proporción por encima de la media de inversión privada, sobre todo a nivel universitario.

El experto dijo no obstante que el sistema universitario británico, que atrae a muchos estudiantes extranjeros pero es polémico por el alto coste de sus matrículas, “es uno de los más sostenibles”.

La inversión en instituciones de educación primaria hasta terciaria superó en 2015 el 6 % del producto interior bruto (PIB) en Canadá, Dinamarca, Islandia, Corea del Sur, Nueva Zelanda, Noruega, el Reino Unido y Estados Unidos, indica el informe.

Los países que menos invierten son la República Checa, Hungría, Indonesia, Luxemburgo, Rusia y Eslovaquia.

La OCDE alerta de que la media de edad de los profesionales de la educación está subiendo: un 33 % de los profesores de primaria y secundaria tenían al menos 50 años en 2015, un aumento de tres puntos porcentuales desde 2005.

Un motivo para la escasez de jóvenes es el salario, pues los sueldos de los maestros son bajos comparados con los de otros licenciados universitarios, señala el organismo.

Para este estudio, la OCDE analizó los datos de sus miembros más los de Argentina, Brasil, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, la India, Indonesia, Lituania, Rusia, Arabia Saudí y Suráfrica.



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